Solar energy is radiant energy and heat generated by the sun. Solar energy creates renewable energy on the planet. Humans as well as all creatures on earth would not be able to exist without the sun and solar energy source. So what is a solar battery?
What is a solar battery?
Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic cells (Solar panels), include many photovoltaic cells (solar cells) – a semiconductor element containing a large number of light sensors on the surface, which are diodes, photovoltaic which converts solar energy into electrical energy. The amperage (I), voltage (U) or resistance (R) of the solar cells change depending on the amount of sunlight shining on them.
Photovoltaic cells are assembled into blocks to become solar cells (typically 60 or 72 photovoltaic cells on a solar panel). Photovoltaic cells are capable of operating under sunlight or artificial light. They can be used as light sensors (e.g. infrared sensors), or as electromagnetic emissions near the visible light threshold, or to measure light intensity.
This conversion is done according to the photoelectric effect. The operation of solar cells is divided into 3 stages:
- Stage 1: First the energy from the light photons is absorbed and forms electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor.
- Stage 2: The electron-hole pairs are then split by a separation made of different types of semiconductors (p-n junction). This effect creates the voltage of the solar cell.
- Stage 3: The solar cell is then connected directly to the external circuit and generates an electric current.
Features of solar panels
Here are some characteristics of a solar panel:
- It has a compact design, thin, square or rectangular plate, black (usually Mono sheet) or blue (usually Poly sheet), with high aesthetics, between battery cells there will be a white space.
- In terms of solar cell efficiency, Mono batteries will have better quality, have higher energy conversion efficiency and go hand in hand with a higher cost than Poly panels.
- They operate continuously, maintaining high performance even in low light intensity conditions.
- A quality product is capable of self-cleaning surfaces, adapting to all-weather without affecting power consumption.
- They are designed with high water resistance, dust resistance for long-term use, up to several decades.
- Solar panels absorb maximum light sources to serve life from living to production.
Benefits of solar panels
Create green energy: Sunlight is a natural source of energy familiar to everyone. Thanks to solar panels, that natural energy source is converted into electricity to serve human life.
Environmentally friendly: A plus point for solar panels is to create a clean, environmentally friendly energy source.
Structure and working principle of solar battery
Solar cells work on the photovoltaic effect to convert photovoltaic energy into electrical energy. A solar panel consists of main components such as:
- Front glass: This is the heaviest component of the panel, the glass layer is 2-4mm thick, is tempered glass to ensure durability, plays a protective role for the entire panel, especially the battery cells inside. This layer must be transparent to transmit the spectrum and light.
- Photovoltaic cell layer: This is the main component of the battery that absorbs sunlight to generate electricity. There are many popular types of solar panels used on the market in our country today, which are Poly (Polycrystalline) and Mono (Monocrystalline) batteries, in addition, there is the latest type of Batteries. Thin-film solar is also used in some electrical and electromagnetic devices.
- Back panel: Placed on the back, the white layer, usually made of a plastic coating that acts as electrical isolation and protection for the PV cells against the effects of humidity or weather, reducing the durability and performance of the PV cells battery panels.
- Junction box: Behind the panel there is a PV junction box that acts as its output interface. External connections for most photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors for easy connection to the rest of the system.
- Frame: The frame is made of metal, usually aluminum to ensure lightness and durability
3 methods of splicing solar panels:
- The serial solar cell coupling method
- Method of joining solar cells in parallel
- Mixed battery pairing method